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Bethel Indian Town

Miscellaneous Notes
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Archaeological Pitfalls at Bethel
Historical Proof of Bethel's Location
National Register Nomination
Help Preserve Bethel
David Brainerd's Early Work
From Crosswicks to Bethel
Bethel's Role in the French & Indian War
Bethel in 1752
Documents from the Friends Indian Committee
The New Jersey Association for helping the Indians
Crosswicks Treaty of 1756 & Native Men in Military Service
From Bethel to Brotherton
The Search for Bethel
William Tennent & the Move to Brotherton
Proof of Wigwam Brook's Headwaters
Miscellaneous Notes
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Guest Book

The following notes relate to Delaware Indians during the time period of the French & Indian War. 
 
The first item is taken from George Croghan's list of different Nations and Tribes of Indians, with the number of their fighting men ca. 1760.  I've only included info on the Delaware, Munsee and Mohican:
 
Mohickons of the east branch of the Susquehanna, 100 fighting men.
 
Monsays, up the north branch of the Susquehanna, 150 fighting men.
 
Delawares, up the north branch of the Susquehanna, 150 fighting men.
 
(note - the Mohocks, or Mohawks, mustered 160 fighting men, the Oneida, 300;  Tuscaroras, 200; Onandagas, 260; Cayugas, 200 and the Senecas, 1,000 fighting men)
 
Delawares between the Ohio and Lake Erie, on the branches of Beaver Creek, Mushingum and Guyehugo, 600 fighting men.
 
Shawnesse (Shawnee), living on the Scioto and branch of Muskingum, 300 fighting men (closely allied with the Delaware and Mohicans)
 
Mohickone living in villages along the Sandusky, 300 fighting men.
 
All told, the Delawares and their close allies could muster 1500 fighting men against the British (and later the Continentals) if they so chose.  The mission of Pisquetomen of the western Delaware and Isaac Still, Delaware Indian diplomat representing Pennyslvania, on their mission to the western Indians near Fort DuQuesne in the fall of 1758 was pivitol to General Forbe's expedition.  The letters of Col. Bouquet and other colonial documents are filled with references to these, and other Indian diplomats who kept the western Delawares and their allies favorable to the British cause at this crucial time.  Isaac Still (along with Joe Peepy, Moses Tatamy, John Pumpshire, and Stephen Calvin) was a Brainerd convert and maintained direct contact with, and was a part of, both Bethel and Brotherton.
 
 
Names of Jersey Indians at Pittsburgh, as noted by James Kenny (source:  Pennsylvania Magazine of History & Biography, Vol. 37, 1913).  Kenny was a trader at Pittsburgh from 1761 to 1763:
 
1759:  A Delaware Indian named James Morriss
 
1762:  John Armstrong, an Indian born in ye Jerseys as he says & talks English, Informs me that several years ago there come some Strange Indians near as black as Negros with very Long Hair, stay'd some Considerable Time and took three squas for Wives with them when they went off.  Their Information of their Contry (by a Spaniard that they brought for an Interpreter which could Talk some of our Indn tongues) was tht it Lyes a Vast Distance over the Missisippi near ye sea.
 
1762:  Tom Green, a Delaware Indian, had been up on the heads of the Susquehanna and that one hundred Delawares who lived there are now settled at Cuscuskies Salt Licks
 
1762:  William Tunum, a Delaware Indian that talks English well.
 
1762:  John Doubty, an old Indian Man Born in the Jerseys (see below).
 
1763:  James Mokesin (Moccasin), an old Delaware man.
 
Kenny information on Delaware Captain White Eyes:
 
Background:  According to New Jersey Indian Commissioner Josiah Foster, White Eyes was a Jersey Indian who went west.  Here Foster's statement written in 1811 on the matter: 

But a Number of us Know, Nearly forty or fifty years Past an Indian man then a youth that went to the westward amongst the Indians who had a good Education and was called Capt. White Eyes he was half Brother to Hannah Moolis Charles Mooliss Mother and not of the Moonis family, therefore can claim no Preference to the Land in Question and it is Likely the Present claims wite Eyes may be a son or Granson of his, the Subscriber thought Best to give this Information which is founded on his own Knowledge well as on the testamony of witnesses Legally taken.  [Note: Foster's chronology would have White Eyes born in 1750.  Either he is off on his dates (he was born in the 1740s, or there were two Capt. White Eyes, which is not borne out by any historical documentation.]

June 9, 1762:  I am inform'd by a White Lad prissoner that lived with White Eyes, When ye French was gather'd with ye Indians this time four years, at Vennango, to come down to take Pittsburgh, that ye sd White Eyes got a very Long Belt of White Wampum made & sent to ye Indians then assembled with ye French, requesting of them to Desist coming against this place, which put them in a Consternation, & set 'em to Councilling, which did not End till ye Express Arriv'd from ye French at Niagara, which turn'd them that way to their defate.  Also that ye sd White Eyes had strongly advised the Delawares to make peace with ye English before they should take Fort Duquesne, or Else they would Cut them all off, which was agreed to...

A Delaware's Description of contact with the Whites:

August 20, 1762:  John Doubty, an old Indian Man Born in the Jerseys, Tells me that the Indians were much better People before any White People came amongst them, then now; that they used frequently Morning & Night Prayer and return'd thanks to ye Good Spirit Above, for preserving them, and that they knew nothing of any sort Indn Corn, untill lye first of that Seed they got out of a Deer they had kill'd, only one grain between ye Skin & Ribs which they plant'd & soon had a great Increase, So that a feast was made & many Indians Invited to Eat fat Venison Boyl'd with Corn, so they Eat & return'd thanks to ye Creatore of all things, for sending them that Good Grain & that they got Wheat, in Same Manner, but made little progress in raising it.  After ye White people Came ye Dutch about New York shot an Indn for pulling Peaches off his trees, which caus'd Wars, & after Peace, ye Indians being settled thick in a Town Near ye Dutch, in a very deep Snow, ye Dutch taking ye advantage kill'd ye Indians only one made his escape, who allarm'd others so that two other Wars & Peaces ensued, ye last Peace lasting untill this late War.  He says that after ye White people brot Rum & suply'd ye Indians with it, they forgot Godd & lost their former Devotion.

tatdeath.jpg

Letter from Tatamy, expecting his death:
 
Maidenhead November 24 1760

Mr Israel Pemberton I am Now at Mr Edmund Bainbridge in Maidenhead in my return from Cononile Johnston’s, Very sick & Expect to Die Mr. Johnston gives me Very good Encouragement about my Land.  I have made my Will & have made you & Mr. John Bainbridge my Executors which I beg you will take a little Care about it & you will Oblige yor. Friend

Moses Tauttame  [not written by Tatamy]

American Indian Historical Research

For information on Brotherton & Weekping

For information on Weequehela & Spotswood, NJ

For information on the Gnadenhutten Massacre

For information on the Indian Company of 1778